What is A Cleanroom in and Why is It Important in Semiconductor Production?

Tuesday, 12 December 23, 12:30

A semiconductor cleanroom is a highly controlled and sterile environment designed for the manufacturing of electronic components, particularly semiconductors. It is a facility where air quality, temperature, humidity, and other environmental factors are tightly regulated to ensure the utmost cleanliness. The objective is to minimize contaminants such as dust, particles, and airborne microbes, as these can adversely affect the precision and functionality of semiconductor devices.

Cleanrooms typically feature advanced air filtration systems, specialized clothing for personnel, and strict protocols for entry and exit. The cleanliness standards are specified by the number of particles per cubic meter at various size ranges.

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Key Requirements for Cleanrooms

It is necessary to fulfill a number of prerequisites in the cleanrooms in order to manufacture chips of the highest quality. When it comes to a cleanroom for semiconductors, the following are some of the most important requirements:

  • Airborne particle concentration - Less than 3,520 particles 0.5µm or smaller per cubic meter of air (ISO 5)
  • Temperature - 20°C ± 1°C
  • Humidity - 40% ± 5% RH
  • Air velocity - 20-50 feet per minute
  • ESD control - Less than 20 volts

Categorization of Cleanrooms

It is possible to categorize cleanrooms according to the degree of cleanliness they possess. A standard for the classification of cleanrooms has been established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).

ISO 1, ISO 2, ISO 3, ISO 4, ISO 5, ISO 6, ISO 7, ISO 8, and ISO 9 are the clean room classes. ISO 1 is considered to be the "cleanest" class, while ISO 9 is considered to be the "dirtiest" class.

This standard is classified according to the number of particles that are present in one cubic meter of air. ISO 5 and ISO 6 cleanrooms are the most prevalent types of cleanrooms used in the semiconductor manufacturing industry.

Benefits of Cleanrooms

A cleanroom can be a costly and time-consuming endeavor to design and build. The expense of a cleanroom is, however, more than justified by its many advantages. Cleanrooms are useful for:

  1. Boost productivity: Cleanrooms can boost IC production by decreasing contamination.
  2. Minimize flaws: By reducing the number of flaws in ICs, cleanrooms can help to produce higher-quality goods.
  3. Enhance efficiency: To reduce the impact of contamination, cleanrooms can help ICs function better.

The Future of Cleanrooms

As semiconductor devices continue to shrink in size, they will most likely influence the development of cleanroom standards in the future. More and more pristine settings will be required as transistors shrink in size and complexity. Cleanroom technology may see certain developments in the future, such as:

  • Innovative methods of filtration technology: To remove even more minute particles from the air, newly developed filtration technologies will be required.
  • Monitoring and cleaning systems that are totally automated: In the future, automation will play an increasingly significant part in the operations of cleanroom facility
  • Monitoring of ongoing contamination in real time: In the event of contamination occurrences, early warning will be provided by real-time monitoring programs.
  • Robotics and other forms of automation: It is anticipated that robots and other forms of automation will be utilized to carry out tasks that are currently carried out by people.
  • Construction and design of cleanrooms: In order to produce cleanrooms that are even more advanced in terms of cleanliness and efficiency, new materials and construction methods will be utilized.


The fabrication of modern electronics requires the use of semiconductor cleanrooms as an essential component. By gaining a grasp of their significance and the conditions that must be met, one will be able to comprehend the complex and intriguing world of semiconductor manufacturing.

In order to limit contamination and ensure that goods are of high quality, these highly controlled environments require the use of HEPA and ULPA filters, as well as tight control over temperature and humidity, and careful management of airflow. Improved yield, decreased faults, and greater performance are just some of the many advantages that cleanrooms provide.

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